Oslo Airport, previously known as Oslo Gardermoen Airport is the main airport in Norway, and serves as a major hub for SAS, Norwegian Air Shuttle (NAX) and Wideroe (WIF). It is situated 19nm northeast of Oslo city.
The number of passengers using public transportation to and from the airport is one of the highest in the world. Nearly 3 quarters of the passengers use either the Airport Express Train, the regional commuter train, or the Airport Shuttle (bus) to get to and from the airport.
The airport was initially used by the Norwegian Army, with the first installations as a military airport built during World War 2. The airport, until it officially opened as Oslo's main airport in 1998 was a military airport, but with joint civil operation and serving as a reserve and charter airport for Oslo. From 1988, due to the increasing number of international flights and demands for such, Oslo operated two airports. Fornebu was the airport for domestic flights, while international flights used Gardermoen.
Gardermoen has it challenges with freezing fog and and super cooled rain (as much as 3 times a month through the winter), which often creates considerable delays. One of the reasons for this is that the use of de-icing fluid is restricted. This is because beneath the airport is one of the largest uncontained water supply systems in Norway.
The airport is is served by SAS, Norwegian Air Shuttle (NAX), Wideroe (WIF), KLM Royal Dutch Airlines (KLM), British Airways (BAW), Emirates (UAE), Qatar Airways (ATR) and Thomas Cook (VKG) to name a few.
The city of Oslo is the capital of Norway and is known as the Tiger City (Tigerstaden). It is believed that this reference dates back to the 1870 and as a tribute to this several statues of tigers were placed in front of the city hall in 2000.
Charts & Flight procedures
The airport has two parallel runways, 01L/19R and 01R/191L. 01L/19L is the primary runway for departures, and 01R/19R is the primary runways for arrivals, but there are excemptions. Runway in use is primarily decided based on METAR and TAF. During times of high traffic density both runways runways will be in use for arrival and departures, except when a specific runway is required due to the available approach facilities. Assignment of runway is usually based on direction of departure/arrival and parking position. In general, the runway stated in the table below is to be expected in times of high traffic density.
|Wind direction||Aircraft||Arrival/Departure point||Runway
|280-100||Jet||Arrival via BELGU, ADOPI, RIPAM. Departure via all SIDs||01L|
|280-100||Jet||Arrival via LUNIP, ESEBA, INREX. Departure via RIBBE, MASEV, OKSAT, VIPPA||01R|
|280-100||Prop||Arrival via BELGU, ADOPI, RIPAM. Departure via all SIDs||01L|
|280-100||Prop||Arrival via LUNIP, ESEBA, INREX.||01L & 01R.|
|280-100||Jet & prop||Omni-directional departure||01L & 01R|
|280-100||VFR/GA/Military||Arrival via all STARs, departure via all SIDs||01L|
|100-280||Jet||Arrival via BELGU, ADOPI, RIPAM. Departure via EVTOG, ATLAP, VIPPA||19R|
|100-280||Jet||Arrival via LUNIP, ESEBA, INREX. Departure via RIBBE, MASEV, OKSAT||19L|
|100-280||Prop||Arrival via BELGU, ADOPI, RIPAM. Departure RIBBE, EVTOG, ATLAP, VIPPA||19R|
|100-280||Prop||Arrival via LUNIP, ESEBA, INREX. Departure via RIBBE, MASEV, OKSAT||19L & 19R|
|100-280||Jet & prop||Omni-directional departure||19L & 19R|
|100-280||VFR/GA/Military||Arrival via all STARs, departure via all SIDs||19R|
The airport has several taxiways. Taxiway S and T runs parallel to runway 01R/19L, and taxiways M and N runs parallel with runway 01L/01R. The taxiways closest to the runways are seldom used, unless there is a need due to congestion. Taxiways H, G, W, J, K and Lare main exit/entry taxiways to the apron. Taxiways north of the main apron (V and P) are one direction taxiways. V is from east to west, P is from west to east. Taxiway Y and Z are used for arriving traffic from taxiway V or P, while taxiway D and R are used for departing aircrafts to V and P.
Oslo has several intersections along the runway, please refer to the AIP. In general, one should try to vacate via taxiway A6 or A7 when arriving 01L, B6 or B7 arriving 01R, B3-B5 when arriving 19L and A3-A5 arriving 19R. Intersection departure from B3-B6 is not allowed for aircraft with Maximum Take-Off Mass (MTOM) above 5700kg.
Low Visibility Procedures (LVP) may be initiated by Air Traffic Control (ATC) when the Runway Visual Range falls below 1000 meters or 300ft, but will automatically be in effect if RVR is below 550m or ceiling below 200ft. ILS Category IIIB approaches are available to all runways, allowing arrivals as long as ceiling is above 50ft and RVR is above 50m. Localizer assisted take-off are available from all runways, allowing departures as long as RVR is greater than 75 meters. If the RVR is below 75m, no departures are allowed, and with RVR below 50m all operations at the airport will cease.
Departure - IFR
Flight plan clearance may be obtained up to 30 minutes prior to Estimated Off Block Time (EOBT).
Pushback procedures at Oslo airport are many and detailed, please refer to the Pushback procedures found in the AIP.
If requiring de-icing, this is to be stated to Delivery on initial contact. De-icing takes place on the de-icing platforms by runway the runways. De-icing pads will be assigned by the de-icing coordinator (ATC on IVAO).
Reduced runway separation is in use at the airport for aircraft categories 1, 2 and 3 in Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC). Meaning, if you are flying a Boieng 737, you may cleared for take-off once the preceeding aircraft (for example a Boeing 737) has just lifted off from the runway. If additional wake turbulance separation is required, ATC must be notified. Pilots needs to be able to commence take-off roll immediately when clearance for take-off is issued.
Oslo has established RNAV Standard Instrument Departures (SID) and Omni-Directional Departures. RNAV SIDs has an initial climb of 7000ft, while the omni-directional departures has an initial climb of 4000ft. When above the Minimum Radar Vectoring Altitude (MRVA), expect the possibility of directs/shortcuts to your first flight plan waypoint. Aircraft departing on an omni-directional departure may expect to turn when passing 2000ft, except when departing runway 01R when a turn can be commenced at or above 1100ft
Between 2230 and 2400 local time, jet and propeller aircraft with MTOM exceeding 5700kg and four propellers or more, are to use runway 01L or 19L for departure. Between 2400-0630 local time runway 01L and 19R are to
ARRIVAL - IFR
The airport has established RNAV Standard Terminal Arrival Routes (STAR) which are RNAV 1. Aircraft unable for RNAV 1 arrivals must advise Norway ACC and Oslo Approach as soon as practical, and can expect radar vectors for approach. Aircraft following a STAR can expect, at any time, to be cleared direct to one of the Initial Approach Fixes (IAF), and subsequently thereafter cleared for the approach as depicted on the charts. Always plan your descent with having a possible direct to the IAFs in mind.
Do not proceed beyond IAF without having received clearance for the approach!
When established on the ILS, it is mandatory to maintain an airspeed of 160kt until 4nm from Threshold (THR). If unable to maintain this speed, ATC must be advised as soon as possible.
Pilots are reminded that rapid exit from the runway enables ATC to apply minimum spacing on final approach. This will achieve a maximum runway utilisation and will minimise the occurrence of go-around.
Between 2230 and 2400 local time, jet and propeller aircraft with MTOM exceeding 5700kg and four propellers or more, are to use runway 01R or 19R. Between 2400-0630 local time runway 01L and 19R are to be used.
The below table can be used as a general guideline for choosing parking positions at the airport.
|2-9, 10-14, 171-178||Domestic, prop||WIF|
|11-15, 16-28, 171-178,||Domestic, medium jets||SAS, NAX|
|60-77||Domestic and schengen jet||SAS, NAX, KLM,|
|79-96||Domestic and schengen jet and prop||SAS, NAX, KLM, WIF|
|38-46, 39-45||Schengen, medium jets||SAS, NAX, - B737|
|47, 48, 49||Non-schengen, medium jets||BAW, VKG, NAX|
|50, 51, 53||Non-schengen, heavy jets||UAE, QTR, NAX|
|181-188||International, medium jets and props||WIF, NAX, SAS|
|201-208||Cargo||KAL, FDX, DHL|
|311-319||General aviation||All types|
|320-329||General aviation, remote parking||All types|
|330-337||General aviation, light||VFR, flight club|
Mandatory reporting and entry points to Gardermoen Control Zone (CTR) are established west and east of the aerodrome. Routes to follow inside the CTR are also established, and should be expected to be used. Arriving aircraft may be cleared from the entry points directly to downwind, base or final, without having to fly the VFR routes inside the CTR. The same applies for departing aircraft, being cleared directly to an exit point after departure. VFR traffic should expect to use only runway 01L or 19R for departures and arrivals. Clearance to cross extended center line of runway 01R or 19L for eastbound departures is implicit if cleared to leave the Control Zone (CTR) via one of the eastern visual reporting points, the same applies when arriving from the east and cleared to join base on runway 01L or 19R.
VFR traffic must be aware raising terrain west of the aerodrome.